IPO – Initial Public Offering

IPO – Initial Public Offering

Public issues can be classified into Initial Public offerings and further public offerings. In a public offering, the issuer makes an offer for new investors to enter its shareholding family. The issuer company makes detailed disclosures as per the DIP guidelines in its offer document and offers it for subscription. Initial Public Offering (IPO ) is when an unlisted company makes either a fresh issue of securities or an offer for sale of its existing securities or both for the first time to the public. This paves way for listing and trading of the issuer’s securities.

IPO is New shares Offered to the public in the Primary Market .The first time the company is traded on the stock exchange. A prospectus is issued to read about its risk before investing. IPO is A company’s first sale of stock to the public. Securities offered in an IPO are often, but not always, those of young, small companies seeking outside equity capital and a public market for their stock. Investors purchasing stock in IPOs generally must be prepared to accept very large risks for the possibility of large gains. Sometimes, Just before the IPO is launched, Existing share Holders get a very liberal bonus issues as a reward for their faith in risking money when the project was new

How to apply to a public issue ?

When a company floats a public issue or IPO, it prints forms for application to be filled by the investors. Public issues are open for a few days only. As per law, any public issue should be kept open for a minimum of 3days and a maximum of 21 days. For issues, which are underwritten by financial institutions, the offer should be kept open for a minimum of 3 days and a maximum of 21 days. For issues, which are underwritten by all India financial institutions, the offer should be kept open for a maximum of 10 days. Generally, issues are kept open for only 3 to 4 days. The duly complete application from, accompanied by cash, cheque, DD or stock invest should be deposited before the closing date as per the instruction on the from. IPO’s by investment companies (closed end funds) usually contain underwriting fees which represent a load to buyers.

Before applying for any IPO , analyse the following factors:

1. Who are the Promoters ? What is their credibility and track record ?

2. What is the company manufacturing or providing services – Product, its potential

3. Does the Company have any Technology tie-up ? if yes , What is the reputation of the collaborators

4. What has been the past performance of the Company offering the IPO ?

5. What is the Project cost, What are the means of financing and profitability projections ?

6. What are the Risk factors involved ?

7. Who has appraised the Project ? In India Projects apprised by IDBI and ICICI have more credibility than small Merchant Bankers

How to make payments for IPOs:

The payment terms of any IPO or Public issue is fixed by the company keeping in view its fund requirements and the statutory regulations. In general, companies stipulate that either the entire money should be paid along with the application or 50 percent of the entire amount be paid along with the application and rest on allotment. However, if the funds requirements is staggered, the company may ask for the money in calls, that is, the company demands for the money after allotment as and when the cash flow demands. As per the statutory requirements, for public issue large than Rs. 250 crore, the money is to be collected as under:

25 per cent on application

25 per cent on allotment

50 per cent in two or more calls

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